Managing Nonmetastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer
PUBLISHED: FEBRUARY 2019
Patients with nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC) have rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and castrate testosterone levels, with no radiological findings of metastatic disease on computed tomography and bone scan. Given recent drug approvals for nmCRPC, with many other therapeutics and imaging modalities being developed, management of nmCRPC is a rapidly evolving field that merits detailed investigation.
To review current nmCRPC management practices and identify opportunities for improving care of nmCRPC patients.
A literature search up to July 2018 was conducted, including clinical trials and clinical practice guidelines (National Comprehensive Cancer Network, European Society for Medical Oncology, European Association of Urology, Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Working Group, Prostate Cancer Radiographic Assessments for Detection of Advanced Recurrence). Keywords included prostate cancer, nonmetastatic, castration resistance, rising PSA, and biochemical relapse.
nmCRPC is a heterogeneous disease; while observation may be an option for some patients, enzalutamide and apalutamide may be appropriate to treat nmCRPC patients with PSA-DT ≤10 mo. The emergence of more accurate imaging modalities as well as circulating tumour biomarker assays will likely redefine the assessment of nmCRPC in the near future.